betway必威足彩尘暴是什么发生的

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ProblemA Hurricanes and Global Warming

Every year, coastal regions brace themselves for violent windstorms
known as hurricanes. But how do these storms form and grow?

    Hurricanes (which also include storms known as ”typhoons” in the
Northwest Pacific and”severe tropical cyclones” in the Indian Ocean and
Southwest Pacific) areextremely destructive and often responsible for
the deaths of hundreds andoccasionally thousands of people.

每年,沿海地段都要早为之所招待狂龙卷风雨,它们被称作暴风。但那些尘暴是何许演进和增加的吗?

    Many meteorologists agree that global warming has occurred (around
half degree C) inthe last several decades at the earth’s surface, and
the trend is likely tocontinue. The problem is, what does global warming
imply for hurricaneactivity? Please structure an reasonable model,
measuring the extent of globalwarming and the strength of global
hurricane activities, and estimating therelationship between them.

The oversimplified answer: Warm ocean water plus the Earth’s eastward
rotation.

主题材料A  沙暴和天下变暖

最简便的答应是:温暖的海水加上地球自转往东。

    龙卷风(也饱含西南印度洋的”尘暴”和北冰洋和东交太平洋的”严重热带气旋”)极具破坏性,往往导致与世长辞成都百货上千的人。

“They’re heat engines,” said meteorologist Jeff Masters of the
websiteWeather Undergroundin aprevious interview. “They take heat from
the oceans and convert it to the energy of their winds. They’re taking
thermal energy and making mechanical energy out of it.”

    比相当多气象学家以为,满世界变暖已经发出(大约半摄氏度),在过去几十年的地表,趋势相当的大概三翻五次。难题是,环球变暖对暴风活动表示怎样?请构造贰个创造的模子,度量满世界变暖的品位和大地尘卷风活动的强度,并预计它们之间的关联。

“沙尘暴被称呼热力斯特林发动机”,在事先的采集中‘地下气象台’网的气象学家杰夫·马斯特那样说。“它们从大洋获得热量然后调换为风能。风暴发生于热能然后释放为机械能。”

The natural engine that is a hurricane is fueled by warm, moist air.
The storms move heat from the ocean surface high into Earth’s
atmosphere. They can travel thousands of miles from the tropics toward
the Earth’s poles.

先本性引擎沙暴源于湿热的氛围。沙暴推动洋面上湿热的气氛达到规定的标准大气层,它们可以从赤道跋涉万里达到两级。

According toNOAA’s National Hurricane Center, the average hurricane
eye—the still center where pressure is lowest and air temperature is
highest—stretches 20 to 30 miles across, with some even growing as
large as 120 miles wide.

据NOAA国家龙卷风宗旨表示,台风眼平常无风,何况表面压力非常小顶部温度最高,它的直径一般从20英里到30公里,有的时候照旧可成长到120英里。

The strongest storms, equivalent to Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson
scale, have sustained winds that exceed 155 miles an hour.

最高档其他强沙暴,是撒佛-Simpson品级的第5级,持续风的速度可当先156公里每时辰。

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Why Are Hurricanes Dangerous?

干什么风暴如此危急?

While hurricanes are categorized based on their wind speeds, wind
isn’t typically the most dangerous part of such storms. “It’s the
storm surge,” said Kerry Emanuel, an atmospheric scientist at MIT, in
an earlier interview. The storm surge is the bulge of water built up
in front of a cyclone or hurricane courtesy of its winds.

纵然如此风暴是遵照风的速度实行等第划分,但风的速度却还不是这种台风最凶险的地点。“是尘暴潮,”在此前收受媒体访问时,北卡罗来纳教堂山分校高校的大气化学家克里·伊曼纽那样表示。风暴潮是由气旋或沙暴涌起的海面非常升降。

It’s the number one killer in hurricanes, Emanuel explained. “That’s
what killed people in Katrina, it’s what killed people in Sandy and in
Haiyan.”

它是烈风中的头号徘徊花,伊曼纽解释道。“沙沙暴潮才是在卡Kimberly尘暴中杀死大家的徘徊花,同样也是在Sandy风暴和海盐尘卷风中杀死大家的刺客”

Emanuel likened a storm surge to a tsunami. One just happens to be
caused by earthquakes (tsunamis), while the other is generated by
hurricanes.

伊曼纽把风暴潮比喻成海啸,只然则海啸是由海底地震引起,台风潮是由海面龙卷风引起。

Flash flooding caused by intense rains is also a major killer, Emanuel
said. “Hurricane Mitch [in 1998] killed 12,000 people and it was all
from flash flooding.”

由强降雨变成的洪流也是风暴中的一大刺客,伊曼纽说。1986年的Mickey沙暴产生了13000人驾鹤归西,那全部是由洪涝发生导致的。

Then comes wind that blows around debris. Hurricane Andrew in 1992 is
an example of this. “It didn’t really cause too much of a storm
surge,” the atmospheric scientist said, “but boy did it blow a lot of
buildings down.”

接下去的一大徘徊花是裹挟着碎片的烈风,1994年的Andrew尘暴正是如此的一个事例。“它并未变成太大的风的口浪的尖潮,可是却摧毁了过多的修建”,伊曼纽那样说道。

Climate change will likely increase the frequency of “the high-end
hurricanes,” Emanuel said.

“天气变化恐怕会增添大型风暴的出现频率”,伊曼纽说。

And those powerful storms have the potential to produce a lot of rain,
flooding, and strong storm surges.

而那个壮大的狂飙有一点都不小希望产生强降雨,雨涝和较强的风暴潮。

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Is That a Hurricane or a Cyclone?

到底是烈风还是气旋?

What’s the difference between hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons?
Actually, they’re all the same weather phenomenon. Scientists just
call these storms different things depending on where they occur.

龙卷风,暴风和沙暴时期的区分是何等?其实,他们都以一样的气象现象。地法学家们只是依附它们发出的地点不一致进行分级命名。

In the Atlantic and northern Pacific, the storms are called
hurricanes, after the Caribbean god of evil, named Hurrican.

太平洋和北太平洋地区的风云被叫做沙尘暴,沙暴一词源自巴芬湾的恶魔——沙暴。

In the northwestern Pacific, the same powerful storms are called
typhoons. In the southeastern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific,
they are called severe tropical cyclones.

在西南太平洋,一样壮大的风的口浪的尖被称呼沙暴风。在西北北冰洋和东交印度洋,它们被称之为强热带气旋。

In the northern Indian Ocean, they’re called severe cyclonic storms.
In the southwestern Indian Ocean, they’re just called tropical
cyclones.

在印度洋南部,他们被叫作强气旋沙台风。在西北印度洋,他们单独被称为热带气旋。

To be classified as a hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone, a storm must
reach wind speeds of at least 74 miles an hour.

若果想要被称呼暴风,风暴,大概气旋,风的速度必得达到规定的标准至少74英里每小时。

If a hurricane’s winds reach speeds of 111 miles an hour, it is
upgraded to an “intense hurricane.”

固然龙卷风的风的速度达到111英里每小时,就被提高为“强尘暴”。

If a typhoon hits 150 miles an hour—as Usagi did in 2013—then it
becomes a “supertyphoon.”

假定像二〇一二年的尘卷风天兔那样到达150海里没小时,就改成了“超强龙卷风”。

While the Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 through November
30, the typhoon and cyclone seasons follow slightly different
patterns.

而大风季节是从五月1日径直到10月十一日,风暴和气旋与之差不离一样。

In the northeastern Pacific, the official season runs from May 15 to
November 30. In the northwestern Pacific, typhoons are most common
from late June through December. And the northern Indian Ocean sees
cyclones from April to December.

在西南印度洋,沙尘暴的合法季节是从四月二30日到13月10日。在西南太平洋,沙台风常见于二月下旬径直到三月。在印度洋北边,气旋发生在1月到1月。


原版的书文地址:

What Causes
Hurricanes?

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